Lead (Pb) – Periodic Table (Element Information & More)

Lead (Pb) element Periodic table

This is a SUPER easy guide on Lead element.

In fact, the table mentioned below is the perfect information box (Which gives you every single detail about the Lead element in Periodic table.)

So if you want to know anything about Lead element, then this guide is for you.

Let’s dive right into it!

Lead Element (Pb) Information

Appearance of Lead appearance of lead
Metallic gray appearance
State of Lead at STPSolid
Position of Lead in Periodic tableLead in periodic table (Position)
Group: 14, Period: 6, Block: p
Category of Lead elementLead element category
Carbon group
Atomic number of Lead, or 
Protons in Lead
82
Neutrons in Lead125
Electrons in Lead82
Symbol of LeadPb
Atomic mass of Lead Lead (Pb) atomic mass
207.2 u
Electrons arrangement in Lead

or 

Bohr model of Lead
Bohr model of lead (Electrons arrangement in lead, Pb)
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electronic configuration of Lead[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Atomic radius of LeadLead (Pb) atomic radius
202 picometers (van der Waals radius)
Valence electrons in LeadValence electrons in lead (Pb)
4
1st Ionization energy of Lead7.417 eV
Electronegativity of Lead Electronegativity of lead (Pb)
2.33 (Pauling scale)
Crystal structure of Leadcrystal structure of lead
FCC (face centered cubic)
Melting point of Lead600.6 K or 327.4 °C or 621.4 °F
Boiling point of Lead2022 K or 1749 °C or 3180 °F
Density of Lead11.34 g/cm3
Main isotope of Lead208Pb
CAS number7439-92-1

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Lead in Periodic table

Lead element is in group 14 and period 6 of the Periodic table. Lead is the p-block element and it belongs to carbon group.

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Why is Lead in Group 14?

Why is Lead in Group 14

Do you know, how many electrons can be accommodated in the first shell, second shell, third shell, fourth shell, etc…?

Here is the table showing the capacity of orbits to hold electrons. 

Number of electrons in shells.

Orbit / Shell (n)Maximum no. of electrons this orbit can hold (2 × n2)
K shell, n = 12 × 1² = 2
L shell, n = 22 × 2² = 8
M shell, n = 32 × 3² = 18
N shell, n = 42 × 4² = 32
.
.
.
.
.
.

Thus, 

  • 1st shell can hold 2 electrons.
  • 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons.
  • 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons.
  • 4th shell can hold 32 electrons.

Now the atomic number of Lead (Pb) is 82.

Hence the Lead element has electrons arrangement 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4.

This electron arrangement indicates that the outermost orbit of Lead element (Pb) has 4 electrons.

Hence, it lies in group 14.

Why is Lead in Period 6?

Why is Lead in Period 6

Let me ask you a question.

How many shells does lead have?

It’s 6. Right? 

You have already seen the bohr model of lead atom in the above table.

From the Bohr model, it can be found that the number of orbits or shells in lead is 6. Hence, as lead has 6 orbits, it lies in period 6 of the Periodic table. 

Why is Lead in p-block?

Why is Lead in p-block

Before knowing this reason, first of all I want to ask you a simple question.

How can you determine the blocks-wise position of elements?

The simple answer: The elements will lie in the s, p, d or f block will completely depend upon the subshell in which the last electron will enter.

For example; the electron configuration of lead is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

So the last electron of lead enters the p-subshell or p-orbital. 

Hence, lead is the p-block element.

5 Interesting facts about Lead

Interesting facts about lead element are mentioned below.

  1. The concentration of lead in the earth’s crust is around 114 ppm by weight.
  2. Lead is primarily obtained from its ore lead sulfide (PbS). lead is also obtained from the ores of copper, silver and zinc.
  3. Lead is one of the elements that was discovered since ancient times.
  4. Lead is a soft metal and it can be cut with a knife also.
  5. Lead is a poisonous element. Too much lead in the human body can cause nervous problems as well as it also affects organs like kidney, heart, intestines, etc.

Properties of Lead

The physical and chemical properties of lead element are mentioned below.

Physical properties of Lead

Physical properties of lead are mentioned below.

  • Lead is a solid metal at STP and it has a metallic grey appearance.
  • Lead is a poor conductor of electricity.
  • Lead is ductile as well as malleable metal. That means it can be drawn into thin wires and thin sheets.
  • There are many isotopes of lead, but out of those isotopes the isotope 208Pb is the most abundant (having abundance of approximately 52.4%).
  • Lead element has a lower melting point of 327.4 °C. And its boiling point is 1749 °C.
  • The crystal structure of lead is FCC (i.e face centered cubic).

Chemical properties of Lead

Chemical properties of lead are mentioned below.

  • When the lead is freshly cut, its surface is bluish grey. But if it is kept open in air, then it reacts with oxygen and starts tarnishing (which forms a grey oxide layer on it).
  • The electron configuration of lead is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, which shows that the last electron enters the p-orbital. Because of this reason, it is classified as a p-block element on the periodic table.
  • In the compound form, lead exists in its most common oxidation states +2 and +4. Apart from these oxidation states, other oxidation states also exist.
  • The 1st ionization energy of lead is 7.417 eV.
  • The electronegativity of lead is 2.33 on the Pauling scale.

Uses of Lead

Uses of lead are mentioned below.

  • Most of the lead produced nowadays is used in manufacturing lead batteries.
  • Lead is also used in solder materials as well as in covering materials for cables.
  • In ancient times, lead was used in plumbing (as it is non corrosive). But due to its toxicity it is not used nowadays.
  • Lead is also used in manufacturing radiation shields, bullets, etc.
  • Lead acts as a superconductor at temperatures below 7.2 K. [1]

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References:
Chemical data: Wikipedia, Chemspider
Pb element: Image by Alchemist-hp (www.pse-mendelejew.de), FAL, via Wikimedia Commons

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