Silicon (Si) – Periodic Table (Element Information & More)

Silicon (Si) element Periodic table

This is a SUPER easy guide on Silicon element.

In fact, the table mentioned below is the perfect information box (Which gives you every single detail about the Silicon element in Periodic table.)

So if you want to know anything about Silicon element, then this guide is for you.

Let’s finish this very quickly.

Silicon Element (Si) Information

Appearance of Silicon Appearance of silicon
Crystalline reflective solid with bluish-tinged faces
State of Silicon at STPSolid
Position of Silicon in Periodic tableSilicon in periodic table (Position)
Group: 14, Period: 3, Block: p
Category of Silicon elementSilicon element category
Metalloids (Carbon group)
Atomic number of Silicon, or 
Protons in Silicon
14
Neutrons in Silicon14
Electrons in Silicon14
Symbol of SiliconSi
Atomic mass of Silicon Silicon (Si) atomic mass
28.085 u
Electrons arrangement in Silicon

or 

Bohr model of Silicon
Bohr model of silicon (Electrons arrangement in silicon, Si)
2, 8, 4
Electronic configuration of Silicon[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Atomic radius of SiliconSilicon (Si) atomic radius
210 picometers (van der Waals radius)
Valence electrons in SiliconValence electrons in silicon (Si)
4
1st Ionization energy of Silicon8.152 eV
Electronegativity of Silicon Electronegativity of Silicon (Si)
1.9 (Pauling scale)
Crystal structure of Siliconcrystal structure of silicon
DC (Diamond cubic)
Melting point of Silicon1687 K or 1414 °C or 2577 °F
Boiling point of Silicon3538 K or 3265 °C or 5909 °F
Density of Silicon2.33 g/cm3
Main isotope of Silicon28Si
Who discovered Silicon and when?Who discovered Silicon and when?
Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1823
CAS number7440-21-3

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Silicon in Periodic table

Silicon element is in group 14 and period 3 of the Periodic table. Silicon is the p-block element and it belongs to carbon group.

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La* Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
*Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
**Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Why is Silicon in Group 14?

Why is Silicon in Group 14

Do you know, how many electrons can be accommodated in the first shell, second shell, third shell, fourth shell, etc…?

Here is the table showing the capacity of orbits to hold electrons. 

Number of electrons in shells.

Orbit / Shell (n)Maximum no. of electrons this orbit can hold
K shell, n = 12 × 1² = 2
L shell, n = 22 × 2² = 8
M shell, n = 32 × 3² = 18
N shell, n = 42 × 4² = 32

Thus, 

  • 1st shell can hold 2 electrons.
  • 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons.
  • 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons.
  • 4th shell can hold 32 electrons.

Now the atomic number of silicon (Si) is 14.

Hence the silicon element has electrons arrangement 2, 8, 4.

This electron arrangement indicates that the outermost orbit of Silicon element (Si) has 4 electrons.

Hence, it lies in group 14.

Why is Silicon in Period 3?

Why is Silicon in period 3

Let me ask you a question.

How many shells does silicon have?

It’s 3. Right?

You have already seen the bohr model of silicon element in the above table.

From the Bohr model, it can be found that the number of orbits or shells in silicon is 3. Hence, as silicon has 3 orbits, it lies in period 3 of the Periodic table. 

Why is Silicon in p-block?

Why is Silicon in p-block

Before knowing this reason, first of all I want to ask you a simple question.

How can you determine the blocks-wise position of elements?

The simple answer: The elements will lie in the s, p, d or f block will completely depend upon the subshell in which the last electron will enter.

For example; the electron configuration of silicon is [Ne] 3s2 3p2

So the last electron of silicon enters the p-subshell or p-orbital. 

Hence, silicon is the p-block element.

7 Interesting facts about Silicon

Interesting facts about silicon element are listed below.

  1. Silicon is the 2nd most abundant element present in the earth’s crust.
  2. Silicon conducts electricity like the metals. But this electrical conductivity increases with the increase in temperature. (The electrical conductivity of metals decreases with increasing temperature.)
  3. Silicon is not found naturally, but is always found as a compound with other elements.
  4. Silicon is also present in the meteorites.
  5. Silicon occupies almost 27% of the earth’s crust. This is because most of the compounds found in the earth’s crust contain silicon element in them.
  6. Silicon is important for plants as it strengthens the plants cell wall.
  7. Inhaling silicon dust causes a dangerous lung disease known as silicosis.

Properties of Silicon

The physical and chemical properties of silicon elements are listed below.

Physical properties of Silicon

Physical properties of silicon are listed below.

  • Silicon is a crystalline reflective solid having bluish-tinged faces.
  • Silicon has higher density in its liquid state as compared to that in solid state.
  • The hardness of silicon carbide (SiC) is very high. This hardness is almost near to the hardness of diamond, but less than that of diamond (Mohs hardness of silicon carbide is between 9 to 9.5, while that of diamond is 10).
  • Silicon has 3 isotopes, out of which 28Si is a stable one.
  • Silicon has a melting point of 2577 °F and a boiling point of 5909 °F.

Chemical properties of Silicon

Chemical properties of silicon are listed below.

  • Silicon shows the chemical properties of metals as well as nonmetals. Hence it is classified as a metalloid on the periodic table. (The majority of the chemical properties of silicon are similar to that of nonmetals.)
  • Silicon can form compounds with metals as well as nonmetals.
  • Silicon reacts with strong alkalis to form silicates and liberates hydrogen gas.

Uses of Silicon

Uses of silicon are listed below.

  • Silicon is a semiconductor material and hence it is used in making computer chips, solar cells, etc, which can conduct electricity at higher temperatures.
  • Transistors which are used in most of the electronic devices from radios to iphones, uses silicon. 
  • Silicon is the main component present in ceramics, glass and bricks.
  • Silicon is also used in the production of steels.
  • Abrasives as well as cutting tools are also made from silicon carbide.

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References:
Chemical data: Wikipedia, Chemspider
Silicon: Image by Enricoros at English Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Jons Jacob Berzelius: Image credits- Wikimedia commons

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