Bismuth (Bi) – Periodic Table (Element Information & More)

Bismuth (Bi) element Periodic table

This is a SUPER easy guide on Bismuth element.

In fact, the table mentioned below is the perfect information box (Which gives you every single detail about the Bismuth element in Periodic table.)

So if you want to know anything about Bismuth element, then this guide is for you.

Let’s finish this very quickly.

Bismuth Element (Bi) Information

Appearance of Bismuth appearance of bismuth
Silvery brown lustrous appearance
State of Bismuth at STPSolid
Position of Bismuth in Periodic tablebismuth in periodic table (Position)
Group: 15, Period: 6, Block: p
Category of Bismuth elementbismuth element category
Pnictogens
Atomic number of Bismuth, or 
Protons in Bismuth
83
Neutrons in Bismuth126
Electrons in Bismuth83
Symbol of BismuthBi
Atomic mass of Bismuth bismuth (Bi) atomic mass
208.98 u
Electrons arrangement in Bismuth

or 

Bohr model of Bismuth
Bohr model of bismuth  (Electrons arrangement in bismuth, Bi)
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Electronic configuration of Bismuth[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Atomic radius of BismuthBismuth (Bi) atomic radius
207 picometers (van der Waals radius)
Valence electrons in BismuthValence electrons in Bismuth (Bi)
5
1st Ionization energy of Bismuth7.289 eV
Electronegativity of Bismuth Electronegativity of Bismuth (Bi)
2.02 (Pauling scale)
Crystal structure of Bismuthcrystal structure of bismuth
Rhombohedral
Melting point of Bismuth544.7 K or 271.5 °C or 520.7 °F
Boiling point of Bismuth1837 K or 1564 °C or 2847 °F
Density of Bismuth9.78 g/cm3
Main isotope of Bismuth209Bi
CAS number7440-69-9

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Bismuth in Periodic table

Bismuth element is in group 15 and period 6 of the Periodic table. Bismuth is the p-block element and it belongs to pnictogens group.

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Why is Bismuth in Group 15?

Why is Bismuth in Group 15

Do you know, how many electrons can be accommodated in the first shell, second shell, third shell, fourth shell, etc…?

Here is the table showing the capacity of orbits to hold electrons. 

Number of electrons in shells.

Orbit / Shell (n)Maximum no. of electrons this orbit can hold (2 × n2)
K shell, n = 12 × 1² = 2
L shell, n = 22 × 2² = 8
M shell, n = 32 × 3² = 18
N shell, n = 42 × 4² = 32
.
.
.
.
.
.

Thus, 

  • 1st shell can hold 2 electrons.
  • 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons.
  • 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons.
  • 4th shell can hold 32 electrons.

Now the atomic number of Bismuth (Bi) is 83.

Hence the Bismuth element has electrons arrangement 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5.

This electron arrangement indicates that the outermost orbit of bismuth element (Bi) has 5 electrons.

Hence, it lies in group 15.

Why is Bismuth in Period 6?

Why is Bismuth in Period 6

Let me ask you a question.

How many shells does bismuth have?

It’s 6. Right? 

You have already seen the bohr model of bismuth atom in the above table.

From the Bohr model, it can be found that the number of orbits or shells in bismuth is 6. Hence, as bismuth has 6 orbits, it lies in period 6 of the Periodic table. 

Why is Bismuth in p-block?

Why is Bismuth in p-block

Before knowing this reason, first of all I want to ask you a simple question.

How can you determine the blocks-wise position of elements?

The simple answer: The elements will lie in the s, p, d or f block will completely depend upon the subshell in which the last electron will enter.

For example; the electron configuration of bismuth is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

So the last electron of bismuth enters the p-subshell or p-orbital. 

Hence, bismuth is the p-block element.

5 Interesting facts about Bismuth

Interesting facts about bismuth element are mentioned below.

  1. The name Bismuth came from the old German word “weissmuth”, which means “white substance”.
  2. The concentration of bismuth in the earth’s crust is approximately 9 parts per billion by weight.
  3. The majority of bismuth is obtained from its mineral ore Bismuth sulfide.
  4. Bismuth is one of the few elements that expands on freezing. In other words, bismuth is more dense in liquid phase than in solid phase. Other elements that expand on freezing are gallium, antimony, silicon and germanium.
  5. The annual production of bismuth in the entire world is approximately 9000 tones.

Properties of Bismuth

The physical and chemical properties of bismuth element are mentioned below.

Physical properties of Bismuth

Physical properties of bismuth are mentioned below.

  • Bismuth is a crystalline brittle metal that has a silvery brown lustrous appearance.
  • Bismuth is a diamagnetic metal and it is repelled by the magnetic field. [1]
  • Bismuth is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
  • The melting point and boiling point of bismuth are 271.5 °C and 1564 °C respectively.
  • Bismuth has many isotopes. Out of those isotopes, the most abundant isotope is 209Bi (which has an abundance of almost 100%).
  • The crystal structure of bismuth is Rhombohedral.

Chemical properties of Bismuth

Chemical properties of bismuth are mentioned below.

  • At room temperature, bismuth is stable and does not react with dry or moist air.
  • At higher temperature, bismuth reacts with water and forms bismuth (III) oxide.
  • Bismuth also reacts with halogens like fluorine, chlorine, bromine, etc to form bismuth (III) halides.
  • Bismuth dissolves in concentration sulfuric acid as well as hydrochloric acid.  
  • The 1st ionization energy of bismuth is 7.289 eV.
  • The electronegativity of bismuth is 2.02 on the Pauling scale.

Uses of Bismuth

Uses of bismuth are mentioned below.

  • As bismuth has a lower melting point, it is used in making low melting alloys.
  • Bismuth has many applications in pharmaceutical industries, for making medicines.
  • Bismuth is also used in cosmetics as well as pigments.
  • The compounds of bismuth are used as a catalyst in making acrylic fibers.
  • Bismuth compounds are also used in making grease for lubrication.

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References:
Chemical data: Wikipedia, Chemspider
Bi element: Image by Alchemist-hp (www.pse-mendelejew.de), FAL, via Wikimedia Commons

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