Aluminum (Al) – Periodic Table (Element Information & More)

Aluminum (Al) element Periodic table

This is a SUPER easy guide on Aluminum element.

In fact, the table mentioned below is the perfect information box (Which gives you every single detail about the Aluminum element in Periodic table.)

So if you want to know anything about Aluminum element, then this guide is for you.

Let’s finish this very quickly.

Aluminum Element (Al) Information

Appearance of Aluminum Appearance of aluminum
Silvery grey
State of Aluminum at STPSolid
Position of Aluminum in Periodic tableAluminum in periodic table (Position)
Group: 13, Period: 3, Block: p
Category of Aluminum elementAluminum element category
Boron group
Atomic number of Aluminum, or 
Protons in Aluminum
13
Neutrons in Aluminum14
Electrons in Aluminum13
Symbol of AluminumAl
Atomic mass of Aluminum Aluminum (Al) atomic mass
26.982 u
Electrons arrangement in Aluminum

or 

Bohr model of Aluminum
Bohr model of aluminum (Electrons arrangement in aluminum, Al)
2, 8, 3
Electronic configuration of Aluminum[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Atomic radius of AluminumAluminum (Al) atomic radius
184 picometers (van der Waals radius)
Valence electrons in AluminumValence electrons in aluminum (Al)
3
1st Ionization energy of Aluminum5.986 eV
Electronegativity of Aluminum Electronegativity of aluminum (Al)
1.61 (Pauling scale)
Crystal structure of Aluminumcrystal structure of aluminum
FCC (Face centered cubic)
Melting point of Aluminum933.47 K or 660.3 °C or 1220.5 °F
Boiling point of Aluminum2743 K or 2470 °C or 4478 °F
Density of Aluminum2.7 g/cm3
Main isotope of Aluminum27Al
Who discovered Aluminum and when?Who discovered Aluminum and when?
Hans Christian in 1824
CAS number7429-90-5

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Aluminum in Periodic table

Aluminum element is in group 13 and period 3 of the Periodic table. Aluminum is the p-block element and it belongs to boron group.

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La* Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
*Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
**Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Why is Aluminum in Group 13?

Why is Aluminum in Group 13

Do you know, how many electrons can be accommodated in the first shell, second shell, third shell, fourth shell, etc…?

Here is the table showing the capacity of orbits to hold electrons. 

Number of electrons in shells.

Orbit / Shell (n)Maximum no. of electrons this orbit can hold
K shell, n = 12 × 1² = 2
L shell, n = 22 × 2² = 8
M shell, n = 32 × 3² = 18
N shell, n = 42 × 4² = 32

Thus,

  • 1st shell can hold 2 electrons.
  • 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons.
  • 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons.
  • 4th shell can hold 32 electrons.

Now the atomic number of aluminum (Al) is 13.

Hence the aluminum element has electrons arrangement 2, 8, 3.

This electron arrangement indicates that the outermost orbit of Aluminum element (Al) has 3 electrons.

Hence, it lies in group 13.

Why is Aluminum in Period 3?

Why is Aluminum in Period 3

Let me ask you a question.

How many shells does aluminum have?

It’s 3. Right? 

You have already seen the bohr model of aluminum element in the above table.

From the Bohr model, it can be found that the number of orbits or shells in aluminum is 3. Hence, as aluminum has 3 orbits, it lies in period 3 of the Periodic table.

Why is Aluminum in p-block?

Why is Aluminum in p-block

Before knowing this reason, first of all I want to ask you a simple question.

How can you determine the blocks-wise position of elements?

The simple answer: The elements will lie in the s, p, d or f block will completely depend upon the subshell in which the last electron will enter.

For example; the electron configuration of aluminum is [Ne] 3s2 3p1

So the last electron of aluminum enters the p-subshell or p-orbital. 

Hence, aluminum is the p-block element.

7 Interesting facts about Aluminum

Interesting facts about aluminum element are mentioned below.

  1. Earth’s crust contains large amounts of aluminium which makes aluminum the 3rd most abundant element found in the earth’s crust. (The first and second abundant elements are oxygen and silicon respectively).
  2. If we consider only metals, then aluminum is the most abundant metal found from the earth’s crust.
  3. Aluminum metal can reflect heat as well as light.
  4. Aluminum is recyclable, that means the aluminum products can be smelted and they can be reused.
  5. Around 75% of the total available  aluminum is still in use today because it is easily recyclable.
  6. Aluminum is toxic for gilled animals (i.e fish), but is non-toxic for humans.
  7. Aluminum’s weight is around ⅓rd that of steel.

Properties of Aluminum

The physical and chemical properties of aluminum element are mentioned below.

Physical properties of Aluminum

Physical properties of aluminum are mentioned below.

  • Aluminum is a silvery grey colored lightweight metal.
  • Fresh film of aluminum is a silvery white in color, but the color may appear dull gray due to surface roughness.
  • Aluminium is a ductile metal and hence it can be formed into different shapes.
  • Aluminum is a lightweight metal having density of only 2.7 g/cm3 which is far less than the density of iron (i.e. 7.875 g/cm3).
  • The 27Al isotope of aluminum is only the stable isotope.
  • Pure aluminum possesses less strength, hence it is alloyed with other metals to increase its strength.

Chemical properties of Aluminum

Chemical properties of aluminum are mentioned below.

  • In air, the aluminum reacts with oxygen and forms a thin oxide layer which protects it from corrosion.
  • Aluminum metal gets corroded by salts like sodium chloride (NaCl). Because of this, the household pipes are not made up of aluminum.
  • Aluminum reacts with nonmetals at higher temperature and forms aluminum nitrides, aluminum sulphides as well as aluminum halides.

Uses of Aluminum

Uses of aluminum are mentioned below.

  • Aluminum is used to manufacture many different types of packaging.
  • Aluminum is also used in medicines which helps in reducing stomach acidity.
  • Aluminum foils are used for packaging of medicines as aluminum has a property to block bacteria, microorganisms, light, oxygen as well as other gases.
  • Aluminum foil reflects heat, and hence it is used to pack warm food items.
  • Aluminum being a lightweight metal, it is used in aerospace industries.
  • Aluminum has good thermal conductivity, hence it is also used in some heat transfer applications.
  • Aluminum metal also finds its applications in various other fields like construction, electrical engineering and electronics, machinery and equipment, consumer goods, etc.

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References:
Chemical data: Wikipedia, Chemspider
Aluminum element: Image license CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Hans Christian: Image by Thora Hallager (1821–1884), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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