Periodic table of Elements (With Names, Symbols, Atomic Mass and Number)

This is a complete guide on Periodic Table.

Periodic table of elements with names and symbols and atomic mass and atomic number

Plus, you will also get the;

Periodic table of elements with names and symbols and atomic mass and atomic number
Periodic table of elements with;
  • Names, Symbols,
  • Atomic mass, Atomic number,
  • Electron configuration,
  • Blocks (s, p, d and f block),
  • Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids,
  • Electronegativity,
  • Ionization energy,
  • Electron affinity, And lots more…
  • History of Periodic table
  • Periodic table with…
    • Symbol
    • Names
    • Atomic number
    • Atomic mass
    • Atomic radius
    • Electron configuration
    • Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids
  • Trends in Periodic table
  • Blocks (s, p, d and f)
  • Types of elements on Periodic table
  • And lots more with tips and tricks…

So if you want to learn anything about Periodic Table, this guide is for you.

Let’s get straight into it.

Periodic Table of Elements

1 18

1

H

1

Hydrogen

1.008

Hydrogen element

Hydrogen(H) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table



2


13


14


15


16


17

He

2

Helium

4.002

Helium element

Helium(He) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

2

Li

3

Lithium

6.94

Lithium element

Lithium(Li) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Be

4

Beryllium

9.012

Beryllium element

Beryllium(Be) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

B

5

Boron

10.81

Boron element

Boron(B) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

C

6

Carbon

12.011

Carbon element

Carbon(C) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

N

7

Nitrogen

14.007

Nitrogen element

Nitrogen(N) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

O

8

Oxygen

15.999

Oxygen element

Oxygen(O) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

F

9

Fluorine

18.998

Fluorine element

Fluorine(F) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ne

10

Neon

20.180

Neon element

Neon(Ne) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

3

Na

11

Sodium

22.990

Sodium element

Sodium(Na) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Mg

12

Magnesium

24.305

Magnesium element

Magnesium(Mg) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table



3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


11


12

Al

13

Aluminium

26.982

Aluminium element

Aluminium(Al) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Si

14

Silocon

28.085

Silicon element

Silicon(Si) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

P

15

Phosphorus

30.974

Phosphorus element

Phosphorus element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

S

16

Sulphur

32.06

Sulphur element

Sulfur(S) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cl

17

Chlorine

35.45

Chlorine element

Chlorine(Cl) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ar

18

Argon

39.95

Argon element

Argon(Ar) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

4

K

19

Potassium

39.098

Potassium element

Potassium(K) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ca

20

Calcium

40.078

Calcium element

Calcium(Ca) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Sc

21

Scandium

44.956

Scandium element

Scandium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ti

22

Titanium

47.867

Titanium element

Titanium(Ti) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

V

23

Vanadium

50.942

Vanadium element

Vanadium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cr

24

Chromium

51.996

Chromium element

Chromium(Cr) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Mn

25

Manganese

54.938

Manganese element

Manganese element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Fe

26

Iron

55.845

Iron element

Iron(Fe) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Co

27

Cobalt

58.933

Cobalt element

Cobalt(Co) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ni

28

Nickel

58.693

Nickel element

Nickel(Ni) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cu

29

Copper

63.546

Copper element

Copper(Cu) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Zn

30

Zinc

65.38

Zinc element

Zinc(Zn) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ga

31

Gallium

69.723

Gallium element

Gallium(Ga) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ge

32

Germanium

72.630

Germanium element

Germanium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

As

33

Arsenic

74.922

Arsenic element

Arsenic(As) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Se

34

Selenium

78.971

Selenium element

Selenium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Br

35

Bromine

79.904

Bromine element

Bromine(Br) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Kr

36

Krypton

83.798

Krypton element

Krypton(Kr) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

5

Rb

37

Rubidium

85.468

Rubidium element

Rubidium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Sr

38

Strontium

87.62

Strontium element

Strontium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Y

39

Yttrium

88.906

Yttrium element

Yttrium(Y) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Zr

40

Zirconium

91.224

Zirconium element

Zirconium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Nb

41

Niobium

92.906

Niobium element

Niobium(Nb) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Mo

42

Molybden..

95.95

Molybdenum element

Molybdenum element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Tc

43

Technetium

(98)

Technetium element

Technetium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ru

44

Ruthenium

101.07

Ruthenium element

Rubidium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Rh

45

Rhodium

102.91

Rhodium element

Rhodium(Rh) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pd

46

Palladium

106.42

Palladium element

Palladium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ag

47

Silver

107.87

Silver element

Silver(Ag) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cd

48

Cadmium

112.41

Cadmium element

Cadmium(Cd) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

In

49

Indium

114.82

Indium element

Indium(In) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Sn

50

Tin

118.71

Tin element

Tin(Sn) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Sb

51

Antimony

121.76

Antimony element

Antimony(Sb) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Te

52

Tellurium

127.60

Tellurium element

Tellurium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

I

53

Iodine

126.90

Iodine element

Iodine(I) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Xe

54

Xenon

131.29

Xenon element

Xenon(Xe) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

6

Cs

55

Caesium

132.91

Caesium element

Caesium(Cs) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ba

56

Barium

137.33

Barium element

Barium(Ba) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

La

57

Lanthanum

138.91

Lanthanum element

Lanthanum element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Hf

72

Hafnium

178.49

Hafnium element

Hafnium(Hf) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ta

73

Tantalum

180.95

Tantalum element

Tantalum(Ta) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

W

74

Tungsten

183.84

Tungsten element

Tungsten(W) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Re

75

Rhenium

75

Rhenium element

Rhenium(Re) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Os

76

Osmium

190.23

Osmium element

Osmium(Os) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ir

77

Iridium

192.22

Iridium element

Iridium(I) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pt

78

Platinum

195.08

Platinum element

Platinum(Pt) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Au

79

Gold

107.87

Gold element

Gold(Au) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Hg

80

Mercury

200.59

Mercury element

Mercury(Hg) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Tl

81

Thallium

204.38

Thallium element

Thallium(Tl) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pb

82

Lead

207.2

Lead element

Lead(Pb) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Bi

83

Bismuth

208.98

Bismuth element

Bismuth(Bi) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Po

84

Polonium

(209)

Polonium element

Polonium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

At

85

Astatine

(210)

Astatine element

Astatine(At) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Rn

86

Radon

(222)

Radon element

Radon(Rn) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

7

Fr

87

Francium

(223)

Francium element

Francium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ra

88

Radium

(226)

Radium element

Radium(Ra) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ac

89

Actinium

(227)

Actinium element

Actinium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Rf

104

Rutherfor..

(267)

Rutherfordium element

Rutherfordium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Db

105

Dubnium

(268)

Dubnium element

Dubnium(Db) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Sg

106

Seaborgium

(269)

Seaborgium element

Seaborghium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Bh

107

Bohrium

(270)

Bohrium element

Bohrium(Bh) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Hs

108

Hasnium

(277)

Hasnium element

Hassium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Mt

109

Meitnerium

(278)

Meitnerium element

Meitnerium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ds

110

Darmstad..

(281)

Darmstadtium element

Darmstadtium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Rg

111

Roentgeni..

(282)

Roentgenium element

Roentgenium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cn

112

Copernici..

(285)

Copernicium element

Copernicium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Nh

113

Nihonium

(286)

Nihonium element

Nihonium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Fl

114

Flerovium

(289)

Flerovium element

Flerovium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Mc

115

Moscovium

(290)

Moscovium element

Moscovium(Mc) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Lv

116

Livermori..

(293)

Livermorium element

Livermorium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ts

117

Tennessine

(294)

Tennessine element

Tennessine element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Og

118

Oganesson

(294)

Oganesson element

Oganesson element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table


Ce

58

Cerium

140.12

Cerium element

Cerium(Ce) element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pr

59

Praseody..

140.91

Praseodymium element

Praseodymium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Nd

60

Neodymi..

144.24

Neodymium element

Neodymium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pm

61

Promethi..

145.00

Promethium element

Promethium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Sm

62

Samarium

150.36

Samarium element

Samarium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Eu

63

Europium

151.96

Europium element

Europium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Gd

64

Gadolinium

157.25

Gadolinium element

Gadolinium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Tb

65

Terbium

158.93

Terbium element

Terbium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Dy

66

Dysprosium

162.50

Dysprosium element

Dysprosium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Ho

67

Holmium

164.93

Holmium element

Holmium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Er

68

Erbium

167.26

Erbium element

Erbium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Tm

69

Thulium

168.93

Thulium element

Thulium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Yb

70

Ytterbium

173.05

Ytterbium element

Ytterbium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Lu

71

Lutenium

174.97

Lutenium element

Lutenium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Th

90

Thorium

232.04

Thorium element

Thorium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pa

91

Protactini..

231.04

Protactinium element

Protactinium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

U

92

Uranium

238.03

Uranium element

Uranium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Np

93

Neptunium

(237)

Neptunium element

Neptunium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Pu

94

Plutonium

(244)

Plutonium element

Plutonium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Am

95

Americium

(243)

Americium element

Americium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cm

96

Curium

(247)

Curium element

Curium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Bk

97

Berkelium

(247)

Berkelium element

Berkelium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Cf

98

Californium

(251)

Californium element

Californium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Es

99

Einsteinium

(252)

Einsteinium element

Einsteinium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Fm

100

Fermium

(257)

Fermium element

Fermium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Md

101

Mendelev..

(258)

Mendelevium element

Mendelevium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

No

102

Nobelium

(259)

Nobelium element

Nobelium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

Lr

103

Lawrenc..

(266)

Lawrencium element

Lawrencium element,Electron configuration,Atomic mass weight,Atomic number,Symbol,Valency,electronegativity,periodic table

periodic table of elements hd image labeled with name and symbols, atomic mass, atomic number, electron configuration, block


Many more amazing things are on your way.

Don’t worry, you will also get the HD image of above periodic table from this article only.

Just give me your few minutes and I’ll give you every single knowledge + HD image of the Periodic Table (with tricks and tips to remember.)

Jump to your interested topics from below.

#1 What is a classification? And why we need classification?


History of periodic table

#2 Brief history of periodic table


arrangement of elements in periodic table

#3 How are elements arranged in periodic table?


Rows in periodic table

#4 Rows and columns in periodic table


groups in periodic table

#5 Basics of periodic table


#6 How to read periodic table elements?


#7 What does group number and period number represent on the periodic table?


periodic table blocks

#8 Blocks in periodic table


Atomic size trend in periodic table

#9 Trends in periodic table (Periodic trends)


What is a classification? And why we need classification?

What if someone asks you to find out one particular book from this huge stack of books.

Will you be able to find that particular book easily?

The answer is: NO

Look at this image, you can see that all the books are arranged in a particular shelf according to their similarities. 

(In other words, books are grouped or sorted according to their similarities.)

Now, what if you have to find a particular book from this properly arranged shelf?

It becomes easy for you to find that particular book, right?

The same thing is with elements. 

There are total 118 elements discovered till now.

These elements also need to be classified or grouped together according to their similarities.

periodic table of elements hd image labeled with name and symbols, atomic mass, atomic number, electron configuration, blocks

Now, this table looks amazing and well classified. Isn’t it?

Well, let me come to the main point.

Why classification of elements is needed?

A big question. Why do we need to classify all the elements?

All the elements have their own physical and chemical properties.

These elements have different uses, applications, chemical reactions, atomic structure, electron configuration, etc.

Thus it is necessary to classify (or group or sort) all these 118 elements according to their similarities.

After proper classification of elements, it becomes very easy for anyone to find a particular element from the table. 

How are elements arranged in the periodic table

Also, the study of each and every element becomes easy by referring to the well classified elements.

Brief history of periodic table

history of the periodic table timeline

This picture shows you how the Periodic Table evolved.

History of Periodic table:

DiscoveryYear
Dobereiner’s triads1829
Newlands law of octaves1864
Mendeleev law1869
The modern periodic law1913

Let me give you a brief introduction about the same.

1). Dobereiner’s triads (1829)

Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner

Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner (A person behind the discovery of triads)

But wait. What are triads?

explain dobereiner's triads meaning

Here is a meaning hidden in the name itself.

Tri means 3

During the time of Dobereiner, around 30+ elements were discovered. 

Dobereiner arranged few of these known elements in the group of three elements.

Let me show you with an example.

dobereiners triads examples

He arranged;

lithium (Li), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in one triad (group of three elements),

Calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba) in other triad and,

Chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I) in other triad.

The main thing I want to tell you is that he arranged these elements in the increasing order of their ATOMIC MASS.

example of dobereiners triads

Now, let me recall to you the atomic mass of lithium, sodium and potassium.

Triad 1

ElementAtomic mass
Lithium (Li)7
Sodium (Na)23
Potassium (K)39

In these triads, Dobereiner found that the atomic mass of the middle element is the average of the atomic mass of the first and third element.

I’ll explain.

explain dobereiners triads with example

Kudos, big magic !!

Same way this similarity was seen for second triad as well as third triad.

Statement of Dobereiner’s triads: 
When elements are arranged in increasing order of their atomic mass, in group of three (triads), then the arithmetic mean of mass of 1st and 3rd element is found to be approximately equal to the mass of central element.

He also stated that the elements of the same triad show similar properties. (Means Lithium, sodium and potassium are in same triad and so they shows similar properties)

Limitations of Dobereiner’s triads

  • Dobereiner’s triads were applicable for only few elements. It was not applicable for all the 30+ known elements.

Hope you have understood this, now let’s move to the next discovery.

2). Newland’s law of octaves (1864)

John Newlands discovered newlands law of octaves

A man behind the discovery of Newland’s law of octaves: John Newlands

A basic question. What is octave?

John newlands law of octaves

Oct indicates the 8 

(Note: It is not October, but if you know about the IUPAC nomenclature, then you might have heard that oct is used to represent 8)

John Newlands discovered his law of octaves in the year 1864. 

During this time, 56 elements were discovered.He arranged these known elements in the increasing order of their ATOMIC MASS.

John newlands law of octaves example

He found that after this arrangement, every 8th element shows a similar property as that of its respective 1st elements.

Let me give you an example.

John newlands law of octaves example

Here hydrogen (H) is 1st element and Fluorine (F) is the 8th element. 

So Newlands found that these two elements show similar properties.

Another example;

Newlands law of octaves example

Here lithium (Li) is 1st element and Sodium (Na) is the 8th element. 

So both these elements show similar properties.

Thus, Newlands found that if all the elements are arranged in increasing order of their atomic mass, then every eight elements shows the similar property.

Hence, the name of this law is Newland’s law of octaves.

Statement of Newland’s law:
If elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic mass, then the property of every eight elements (starting from the first element) repeats.

Limitations of Newlands law of octaves

  • Similarity in properties as per the law was seen up to calcium only.
  • He stated that only 56 elements exist in nature. But later on, he was proved wrong and many more elements were discovered.
  • Dissimilar elements were placed in the same slot.
  • Similar elements were placed in different slots.

3). Mendeleev law (1869)

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

Wow, what a personality !!!

Amazing.

Mendeleev law:
The properties of elements are the periodic functions of theirs atomic masses

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev discovered this law and it is known as Mendeleev law.

Well, let me explain this to you with a simple story.

It’s a story of 1869.

During that time, 63 elements were known.

Mandeleev prepared the cards (just like the solitaire cards) of all these 63 elements with their individual properties written on each card. 

He took a board and then he arranged all these 63 elements in the increasing order of their atomic mass. 

First he took the element with lowest atomic mass, and started placing other elements besides it. 

If the property of any of the elements were similar, then he used to place it in the same column. And if the property of elements did not match, then he kept it in the row. 

That way he filled the entire table and finally the table was prepared as shown below.

dmitri mendeleev periodic table of elements explanation

This table is known as the Mendeleev periodic table of elements.

There are a total 8 vertical columns in the Mendeleev periodic table, which are known as groups.

And there are 7 horizontal rows, which are known as periods.

But wait. 

Have you noticed that many blocks have more than one element in Mendeleev periodic table? Why?

The short answer: Those elements show similarly in their properties. That’s why Mendeleev placed those elements in the same block. 

One more question.

Why are some blocks empty in the above Mendeleev periodic table?

Now look, while arranging the elements according to atomic masses, Mendeleev found that the properties of few elements were not matching with any of the previous ones, so he didn’t place such elements in that particular column. 

So there were some empty blocks seen on the Mendeleev periodic table.

Understood?

I know this seems a little difficult for you, so you can refer to this detailed guide on “Mendeleev periodic table” where I have explained all these things with proper images for your better understanding. I have also discussed the merits and demerits of the Mendeleev periodic table. So must visit that article.

4). Modern Periodic Law (1913)

We have seen in previous section that Dobereiner’s law, Newland’s law as well as Mendeleev law were based on the arrangements of elements according to their increasing atomic masses.

But the only difference in modern periodic law is;

modern periodic law is based on atomic number

Yes, all the elements in modern periodic table are arranged on the basis of their ATOMIC NUMBER.

Modern periodic law:
The properties of the elements are the Periodic function of their ATOMIC NUMBERS.

Modern Periodic Law was given by Henry Moseley in 1913.

This law is exactly similar to the Mendeleev law, but the only difference is;

  • Mendeleev arranged the elements according to the increasing atomic mass. While,
  • Henry Moseley arranged the elements according to the increasing atomic number.

In other words;

  • Mandeleev law says that the properties of elements are the functions of their atomic mass. While,
  • Modern periodic law says that the properties of elements are the Periodic function of their atomic number. 

According to the modern periodic law given by Henry Moseley, the elements should be arranged in the table on the basis of their ATOMIC NUMBER.

That’s it!

After arranging all the elements based on atomic number, the modern periodic table came into existence.

How are elements arranged in periodic table?

Here, you will exactly come to know how Henry Moseley arranged the elements in periodic table on the basis of modern periodic law.

blank periodic table of elements block wise

As said in his modern periodic law, the elements should be arranged according to the increasing atomic number. 

So the minimum atomic number (i.e 1) was placed at the left-top corner of the table.

blank periodic table

Further, the elements with atomic number 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc… were placed in the blocks of periodic table.

how are elements arranged in the periodic table

Similarly, all the elements were filled in this table of elements.

But, here is an important thing to know.

long form of periodic table with 32 columns blank

See the above image. The actual periodic table is like this. This Periodic table is also known as a long form of periodic table.

Block wise blank periodic table

But it is represented like this so that it fits perfectly and it will not distort the shape of the periodic table. Also the elements lying in this block have different electron configuration and different properties. Well, do not worry about this, I’ll explain to you about the electronic configuration and properties later. 

Still confused?

Look, the element having atomic number 57 is here as shown in the below picture.

Blank periodic table with color

Now, element 58 is not placed besides it, but it is placed in a separate block as shown below. And this repeats up to element number 71.

lanthanides and actinides in periodic table

Thus, elements with atomic number 58 to 71 are placed in separate block below the main table.

Similarly, elements with atomic number 90 to 103 are also placed in separate block as shown below.

lanthanides and actinides in periodic table

Just wait for few seconds, You will definitely come to know the reason why these elements are placed in a separate block.

Keep reading…

Rows and columns in periodic table

I want to explain you the basics of periodic table, but before that, let us proceed with the rows and columns of the Periodic table.

1). Rows in periodic table (Periods)

There are total 7 rows in periodic table.

rows in periodic table are called periods

Question: You might be having a question that “What are Periods in Periodic table?”

Answer: The rows in Periodic table are known as Periods. 

The first row is known as 1st period, second row is known as 2nd period and similarly you can see in the below image till the 7th row.

how many periods in the periodic table

Now, let’s move to the columns of the Periodic table.

2). Columns in periodic table (Groups)

Just see below, there are total 18 columns in the Periodic table.

columns in periodic table

If you are having a question “What are Groups in Periodic table?”, then here is a short and sweet answer for you.

Answer: The columns in Periodic table are known as Groups. 

The first column  is known as the 1st group, second column is known as 2nd group and similarly you can see in the below image till the 18th column.

how many groups in the periodic table

Now, it’s time to see the entire periodic table. Hurray!!!

Basics of periodic table

periodic table basics explained with groups and periods periodic table, metals non metals, metalloids, halogens on periodic table

In this section you will come to know all the basis things related to the modern periodic table like;

  • Groups and periods of periodic table
  • Blocks of Periodic table
  • Types of Elements on periodic table
  • How to read periodic table?, etc..

1). Groups and periods of periodic table

We have already seen in the above section that the vertical columns in the modern periodic table are known as groups.

how many groups in periodic table of elements labeled with names and number

There are total 18 vertical columns in modern periodic table. (In other words, there are 18 groups in modern periodic table)

Now, I’ll tell you amazing things about Periods of the Periodic table.

We have seen that the horizontal rows of periodic table are known as periods.

how many periods or rows in periodic table of elements

There are total 7 horizontal rows in periodic table. That means there are total 7 periods in periodic table.

Now, you can see that there are only 2 elements in the 1st period. Thus, period 1 is known as shortest period.

(Shortest period) first period or row in periodic table of elements

Now, the 2nd period and 3rd period has 8 elements, so period 2 and period 3 are known as short period.

(Short period) Second and third period or row in periodic table of elements

4th and 5th period has total 18 elements. So there are known as long period.

(long period) fourth and fifth period or row in periodic table of elements

Now pay attention to this.

Look at the 6th and 7th period, how many elements are there?

There are 18 elements + 14 elements at the bottom block. So total 32 elements are present in period 6 and period 7.

Thus the 6th period and 7th period are known as longest period.

(longest period) sixth and seventh period or row in periodic table of elements

2). Blocks of periodic table

different periodic table blocks spdf labeled, periodic table s block p block d block f block elements

Well, these are the 4 blocks of periodic table.

Let me give you some overview of these 4 blocks one by one (in brief)

s block

periodic table s block elements with names and symbols

You can see the s block elements of the Periodic table in the above image.

s block includes the following groups:

  • Group 1 and
  • Group 2

List of group 1 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
LithiumLi
SodiumNa
PotassiumK
RubidiumRb
CesiumCs
FranciumFr

List of group 2 elements with theirs symbols are given below:

Element nameSymbol
BerylliumBe
MagnesiumMg
CalciumCa
StrontiumSr
BariumBa
RadiumRa

Also read: Why are these elements known as s-block elements?

p block

p block elements periodic table with names and symbol

Now, here is your p block on the Periodic table.

The following groups are included in the p block of periodic table.

  • Group 13
  • Group 14
  • Group 15
  • Group 16
  • Group 17
  • Group 18

List of group 13 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
BoronB
AluminumAl
GalliumGa
IndiumIn
ThalliumTl
NihoniumNh

List of group 14 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
CarbonC
SiliconSi
GermaniumGe
TinSn
LedPb
FleroviumFl

List of group 15 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
NitrogenN
PhosphorusP
ArsenicAs
AntimonySb
BismuthBi
MoscoviumMc

List of group 16 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
OxygenO
SulphurS
SeleniumSe
TelluriumTe
PoloniumPo
LivermoriumLv

List of group 17 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
FluorineF
ChlorineCl
BromineBr
IodineI
AstatineAt
TennessineTs

List of group 18 elements with their symbol are given below:

Element nameSymbol
NeonNe
ArgonAr
KryptonKr
XenonXe
RadonRn
OganessonOg

Also read: Why are these elements known as p-block elements?

d block

d block elements periodic table with names and symbol

d block includes following groups.

  • Group 3
  • Group 4
  • Group 5
  • Group 6
  • Group 7
  • Group 8
  • Group 9
  • Group 10
  • Group 11
  • Group 12

The d block elements are also known as Transition elements.

List of d block elements with names is provided in the below table.

3rd Group4th Group5th Group6th Group7th Group8th Group9th Group10th Group11th Group12th Group
Scandium (Sc)Titanium (Ti)Vanadium (V)Chromium (Cr)Manganese (Mn)Iron (Fe)Cobalt (Co)Nickel (Ni)Copper (Cu)Zinc (Zn)
Yttrium(Y)Zirconium (Zr)Niobium (Nb)Molybdenum (Mo)Technetium (Tc)Ruthenium (Ru)Rhodium (Rh)Palladium (Pd)Silver (Ag)Cadmium (Cd)
Lanthanum (La)Hafnium (Hf)Tantalum (Ta)Tungsten (W)Rhenium (Re)Osmium (Os)Iridium (Ir)Platinum (Pt)Gold (Au)Mercury (Hg)
Actinium (Ac)Rutherfordium (Rf)Dubnium (Db)Seaborghium (Sg)Bohrium (Bh)Hassium (Hs)Meitnerium (Mt)Darmstadtium (Ds)Roentgenium (Rg)Copernicium (Cn)

Also read: Why are these elements known as d-block elements?

f block

f block elements periodic table (lanthanides and actinides on the periodic table)

Many of you might have a question;

“What are the two rows at the bottom of the periodic table?”

They are known as Lanthanides and Actinides.

The first row of elements in the f block is known as Lanthanides and the second row of elements in the f block is known as Actinides.

The f block elements are also known as inner transition elements.

Also read: Why are these elements known as f-block elements?

3). Types of elements on periodic table

Periodic table types of elements (metals, nonmetals, metalloids, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gas)

Now, I’ll show you what type of elements are there on the Periodic table.

You might have a question;

Where are metals on the Periodic table?

Where are nonmetals located on the Periodic table?

Where are metalloids located on the Periodic table?

Where are halogens on the Periodic table?

Where are Noble gases on periodic table?

And many more…

Where are metals on the Periodic table?

Look, first of all you should know some properties of metal, nonmetal and semimetal (metalloid). 

But you will understand this position of elements even if you do not know anything. I’ll try to explain this in a simple way.

Just remember that, on the left side of the Periodic table there are the best metals.

Metals on periodic table (where are metals found on the periodic table)

Further, according to their availability, they are again classified as Alkali metals and Alkaline Earth metals.

Also see:
1). How many metals are on periodic table?
2). Why are metals on the left side of periodic table?

Alkali metals:

Alkali metals on periodic table (where are alkali metals found on the periodic table)

Group 1 elements are known as alkali metals. 

All the elements of group 1 form an alkaline solution (or basic solution) when they react with water. (In other words, when they react with water, they form the compounds which are basic in nature)

That’s why these group 1 elements are known as alkali metals.

Also see:
1). Why are alkali metals so reactive?
2). Electron configuration of alkali metals

Alkaline Earth metals:

Alkaline earth metals on periodic table (where are alkaline earth metals found on the periodic table)

Group 2 elements are known as Alkaline Earth metals.

All these elements of group 2 have the similar properties as that of group 1 elements, but these elements are mostly found from the Earth crust. Hence, they are named Alkaline Earth metals.

Also see:
1). What do alkaline earth metals have in common?
2). List of alkaline earth metals with electron configuration

Where are nonmetals on the Periodic table?

Nonmetals on periodic table (How many nonmetals are in the periodic table)

Here are the nonmetals on the Periodic table.

Read more about Nonmetals from here.

Where are metalloids (semimetals) on the Periodic table?

Metalloids in periodic table (metalloids location on periodic table)

Here are the semimetals or metalloids on the Periodic table.

The zig zag line shown in the Periodic table includes the elements which possess metallic nature as well as nonmetallic nature. 

Thus they are known as semimetals or metalloids.

Also see: Physical and chemical properties of metalloids.

Where are halogens on the Periodic table?

Halogens in periodic table (Halogens location on periodic table)

Do you know why halogens are called so?

The word Halogens has come from two Greek words;

“Hal” meaning “salts” and

“Gen” meaning “to produce”.

Thus “Halogens” means “salt producing”.

So all the elements of the group 17 form salts when they react with metals. 

For example; 

2Na + Cl2   ——->   2NaCl

Which is a salt.

Thus, group 17 elements are known as Halogens. 

Also see:
1). Which is most reactive halogen?
2). Properties of halogens.

Where are Noble gases on periodic table?

Noble gases in periodic table (Noble gases location on periodic table)

The elements of group 18 do not participate in any chemical reaction. (In other words, these elements are chemically inert)

Plus all the elements of group 18 are in gaseous state.

Thus, the 18th group elements of periodic table are known as Noble gases or inert gases.

Also see:
1). Electron configuration of noble gases
2). Uses of noble gases in daily life

Where are transition elements on periodic table?

Transition elements on periodic table (Transition metals location on periodic table)

Transition metals (also known as Transition metals) form a bridge between the chemically active metals of s-block elements and the less active elements of Groups 13 and 14. 

Thus these d block elements are known as “Transition Elements”.

Also see: List + Electron configuration of transition metals.

Where are inner transition elements on periodic table?

Inner transition elements on periodic table (Inner transition metals location on periodic table)

Now, this is very simple.

As the name suggest “inner”. Means these elements are transition elements only but they are placed in the inner section of transition elements.

Hence these f block elements are known as “Inner transition elements.”

Also see: Why are inner transition metals at the bottom of periodic table?

Where is boron family in the periodic table?

Boron family on periodic table (Boron group elements location on periodic table)

Very simple!!

The first element of group 13 is boron. 

Hence, group 13 is known as boron family or boron group.

Where is carbon group in periodic table?

Carbon family on periodic table (carbon group elements location on periodic table)

This is also simple!!!

The first element of group 14 is carbon.

Hence, group 14 is known as carbon family or carbon group.

Where is nitrogen family on periodic table?

Nitrogen family on periodic table (Nitrogen group elements location on periodic table)

Group 15 elements has the first element “Nitrogen”.

So the group 15 is known as nitrogen family or nitrogen group. 

These 15 group elements are also known as Pnictogens.

Where are chalcogens on periodic table?

Chalcogens on periodic table (Oxygen group elements location on periodic table)

Group 16 elements includes oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium and polonium.

These elements are generally present in the Earth crust in the form of ores.

Chalcogens is the Greek word which means “ore forming”. 

As these group 16 elements are present in the ores, they are known as “Chalcogens.”

Enjoying? 

If no, then also

Keep reading…. Because the most important part is coming now.

How to read periodic table elements?

periodic table of elements hd image labeled with name and symbols, atomic mass, atomic number, electron configuration, blocks

Here is your sweet, cute, beautiful, colorful modern periodic table. Hehehe…

Now, you might be wondering;

  • What is written in each single square box?
  • What are those 1, 2, 3, 4, etc… numbers?
  • What is that number written below each element?
  • Why do the columns have different colors?
  • What are those two rows at the bottom of the periodic table?
  • How to remember periodic table?
  • And many more…

Do not worry at all, I will explain everything step by step.

Carbon element atomic number, atomic mass, symbol in periodic table

I will give you a very short and simple explanation for reading the elements of periodic table using the example of carbon element. 

Atomic number:
The total number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom is known as Atomic number. Or 
The number of electrons possessed by a neutral atom is called Atomic number.

Here, the number written on the top of each square is the atomic number of that element.

Carbon element atomic number, atomic mass, symbol in periodic table
carbon valence electrons (carbon electron arrangement, Carbon electron shell diagram)

For example carbon has total 6 electrons. So the atomic number of carbon is 6.

Element symbol:
The alphabet used to mention the elements is known as the symbol of elements.

Carbon element atomic number, atomic mass, symbol in periodic table

The symbol of elements are represented by using single uppercase alphabet (for e.g. C, O, N, F, H, etc…) or sometimes first letter is uppercase followed by lowercase alphabet (for e.g. Li, Na, Si, Ne, Ar, etc…)

Element name:
The name displayed in each individual square block represents the name of that element.

Carbon element atomic number, atomic mass, symbol in periodic table

Atomic mass:
Atomic mass is the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom. 

Atomic mass in periodic table is displayed as shown in below image. (It is generally a decimal value)

Carbon element atomic number, atomic mass, symbol in periodic table

(Note: In some periodic tables, you may find that the atomic masses are written in the left top corner or right top corner of each cell, but remember that it is a decimal value. So if you find that decimal value in the cells of periodic table, it’s an atomic mass of that element)

Now the most important topic is coming… 

If you are still with me, then You are going to Rock now.

Keep reading…

What does group number and period number represent on the periodic table?

Trust me this is very simple.

Let me explain directly with an example.

Example 1:

Let’s take an example of magnesium (Mg)

Position of magnesium (Mg) in periodic table

Now, tell me where is the position of magnesium (Mg).

It is in 3rd period and 2nd group. Right?

What does group number and period number represent on the periodic table

Cool…Now, this period 3 indicates that the atoms of magnesium possess 3 orbits or 3 shells.

magnesium shell diagram

Here are the 3 orbits of magnesium.

Now, Magnesium (Mg) is lying in group 2. That means, it has 2 electrons in its outermost orbit.

magnesium valence electrons

Here are the 2 electrons in the outermost orbit of magnesium. These two electrons are known as valence electrons.

And you might be knowing that each orbit has some different capacity to hold electrons.

See the table below, you will come to know “how many electrons a particular orbit can hold.”

Number of electrons in shells:

Orbit / Shell (n)Maximum no. of electrons this orbit can hold
K shell, n = 12 × 1² = 2
L shell, n = 22 × 2² = 8
M shell, n = 32 × 3² = 18
N shell, n = 42 × 4² = 32

Thus, 

  • 1st shell can hold 2 electrons.
  • 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons.
  • 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons.
  • 4th shell can hold 32 electrons.

Let’s come back to magnesium. It is having atomic number 12. That means it has total 12 electrons.

From the above table, we can say that, first orbit will hold 2 electrons, the second orbit will hold 8 electrons and finally remaining 2 electrons will be in the 3rd orbit.

Magnesium valence electrons (Magnesium electron arrangement, Magnesium electron shell diagram)

(Side note: The actual orbits are not 2 dimensional, but they are 3 dimensional. In order to represent on the paper, we draw 2 dimensional orbit)

Example 2:

Let’s take another example of Chlorine (Cl). 

Chlorine lies in the 3rd period and 17th group.

3rd period indicates that chlorine has 3 orbits and;

17th group indicates that it has 7 electrons in outermost orbit.

chlorine valence electrons (chlorine electron arrangement, chlorine electron shell diagram)

Atomic number of chlorine is 17. (In other words, Chlorine has total 17 electrons). 

And now you know very well that 2nd orbit holds maximum 8 electrons.

Thus, the arrangement of electrons in the orbit of Chlorine atom is as shown above.

Remember: 
Group 13 indicates 3 valence electrons, not 13.
Group 14 indicates 4 valence electrons, not 14.
Group 15 indicates 5 valence electrons, not 15.
Group 16 indicates 6 valence electrons, not 16. 
Group 17 indicates 7 valence electrons, not 17.
Group 18 indicates 8 valence electrons, not 18.

I have explained the concept of valence electrons for d block and f block elements in separate articles “d block elements” and “f block elements.” (Because it is little bit different and first you need to know about the concept of orbitals)

Are you still with me…?

Then let’s not waste more time.

A most important and amazing concept about the periodic table is coming…

I’ll keep this very short and to the point. (Because this article is very long now). If you want detailed information on this topic, you must visit: Main article on Periodic trends.

Let’s dive straight into it.

First of all, what does trends mean in Periodic table?

Trends: The change in properties of elements down the groups (from top to bottom) and across the periods (from left to right) is known as trends.

We generally measure these trends (change in properties of elements) down the group and across the period.

I’ll shortly tell you the variation of following properties in the periodic table. 

Periodic trends: Valency

As we move across the period (from left to right), the Valency of the elements first increases and then decreases. While moving down the group (from top to bottom), the Valency of elements remains the same.

valency trend in periodic table

Don’t worry, I’ll tell you the reason why this happens.

See, first of all valency is nothing but the number of electrons required to complete the octet. 

For example, atomic number of oxygen is 8. That means oxygen has total 8 electrons. 

So it’s electron arrangement is (2, 6).

It has 2 electrons in first orbit and other 6 electrons in second orbit. 

Oxygen valence electrons (Oxygen electron arrangement, oxygen electron shell diagram)

You can see that oxygen has 6 electrons in its outermost orbit. 

Thus, it requires 2 electrons to complete the octet. 

Hence valency of oxygen is 2.

As we move across the period (from left to right), the Valency of elements  first increases and then decreases.

And along the group, the Valency remains constant, because you know very well that the number of electrons in the outermost orbit remains the same for all the elements of the same group. 

Periodic trends: Atomic size

As we move across the period (from left to right), the atomic size of elements decreases. While moving down in the group (from top to bottom), the atomic size increases.

Atomic radius trend in periodic table (atomic size trend in periodic table)

Want to know why the atomic size decreases across a period and why it increases down the group?

Then check out the separate article on Atomic size trends. (Where I have explained the reason with images and example).

Periodic trends: Metallic character

As we move across the period (from left to right), the metallic character of elements decreases. While moving down in the group (from top to bottom), the metallic character increases.

Metallic character trend on periodic table down the group and across the period (metallic trend in periodic table)

To know the reason behind this trend, I highly recommend you to visit the separate article: Metallic character trend in Periodic table.

Periodic trends: Non metallic character

Nonmetallic character trend on periodic table down the group and across the period (Nonmetallic trend in periodic table)

As we move across the period (from left to right), the non metallic character of elements increases. While moving down in the group (from top to bottom), the non metallic character decreases.

I have given little more information on non metallic character trends. So if you want to see it, then kindly visit this article: Non metallic character trend in Periodic table.

Periodic trends: Electronegativity

Down the group (from top to bottom), the atomic size increases. So Electronegativity decreases.

Electronegativity trend in periodic table down the group and across the period (electronegativity trend explained)

And across the period (from left to right), the atomic size decreases, so the Electronegativity increases.

But if you don’t know what electronegativity is, then you can refer to this article (where I have explained the simple plain english explanation about electronegativity and few more things about the electronegativity trend in Periodic table.)

Periodic trends: Electron affinity

As we move across the period (from left to right), the atomic size decreases, so electron affinity increases across the period (from left to right.)

Electron affinity trend in periodic table down the group and across the period (electron affinity trend explained)

And as we move down the group (from top to bottom), the atomic size increases, so the electron affinity decreases down the group (from top to bottom). Now, if you don’t know about the concept of electron affinity, plus if you want to know the reason why electron affinity increases across a period and why it decreases down the group, then visit this article: Electron affinity trend in Periodic table.

Periodic trends: Ionization energy

Across the period (from left to right), the atomic size decreases, so ionization energy increases across the period (from left to right.)

Ionization energy trend in periodic table down the group and across the period (Ionization energy trend explained)

And down the group (from top to bottom), the atomic size increases, so the ionization energy decreases down the group (from top to bottom.)

Want to know why this trend is so?, then visit the Guide on Ionization energy trend, where I have explained the concept of ionization energy with images + I have also explained the reason why this trend is so?

Summary of Periodic trends

So as a summary, you can remember all the trends in periodic table with this single image.

Kudos…!!

Trends in periodic table (Periodic trends: Atomic radius, ionization energy, metallic and nonmetallic character, electronegativity, electron affinity)

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