Chromium (Cr) – Periodic Table (Element Information & More)

Chromium (Cr) element Periodic table

This is a SUPER easy guide on Chromium element.

In fact, the table mentioned below is the perfect information box (Which gives you every single detail about the Chromium element in Periodic table.)

So if you want to know anything about Chromium element, then this guide is for you.

Let’s dive right into it!

Chromium Element (Cr) Information

Appearance of Chromium Appearance of Chromium
Silvery metallic color
State of Chromium at STPSolid
Position of Chromium in Periodic tableChromium in periodic table (Position)
Group: 6, Period: 4, Block: d
Category of Chromium elementChromium element category
Transition metals
Atomic number of Chromium, or 
Protons in Chromium
24
Neutrons in Chromium28
Electrons in Chromium24
Symbol of ChromiumCr
Atomic mass of Chromium Chromium (Cr) atomic mass
51.996 u
Electrons arrangement in Chromium

or 

Bohr model of Chromium
Bohr model of chromium (Electrons arrangement in chromium, Cr)
2, 8, 13, 1
Electronic configuration of Chromium[Ar] 3d5 4s1
Atomic radius of ChromiumChromium (Cr) atomic radius
189 picometers (van der Waals radius)
1st Ionization energy of Chromium6.767 eV
Electronegativity of Chromium Electronegativity of Chromium (Cr)
1.66 (Pauling scale)
Crystal structure of Chromiumcrystal structure of chromium
BCC (Body centered cubic)
Melting point of Chromium2180 K or 1907 °C or 3465 °F
Boiling point of Chromium2944 K or 2671 °C or 4840 °F
Density of Chromium7.19 g/cm3
Main isotope of Chromium52Cr
Who discovered Chromium and when?Who discovered chromium and when?
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in 1794
CAS number7440-47-3

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Chromium in Periodic table

Chromium element is in group 6 and period 4 of the Periodic table. Chromium is the d-block element and it belongs to transition metals group.

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La* Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
*Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
**Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Why is Chromium in Period 4?

Why is Chromium in Period 4

Let me ask you a question.

How many shells does chromium have?

It’s 4. Right? 

You have already seen the bohr model of chromium atom in the above table.

From the Bohr model, it can be found that the number of orbits or shells in chromium is 4. Hence, as chromium has 4 orbits, it lies in period 4 of the Periodic table. 

Why is Chromium in d-block?

Why is Chromium in d-block

Before knowing this reason, first of all I want to ask you a simple question.

How can you determine the blocks-wise position of elements?

The simple answer: The elements will lie in the s, p, d or f block will completely depend upon the subshell in which the last electron will enter.

For example; the electron configuration of chromium is [Ar] 4s1 3d5

So the last electron of chromium enters the d-subshell or d-orbital. 

Hence, chromium is the d-block element.

Is Chromium a Transition Metal? Why?

Is Chromium a Transition Metal

Yes, Chromium is a transition metal because it has incompletely filled d-orbital in its ground state.

Let me explain the exact meaning of this.

According to the definition of transition metals;
The element should compulsorily have incomplete d-orbitals, either in their ground state (M) or most common oxidation states (M1+, M2+, etc) then only they are called transition metals.

Now, the ground state of Chromium means its normal state in which it has neither gained nor lost any electron/s.

So the ground state of Chromium is Cr.

And the ground state electronic configuration of Chromium is [Ar] 4s1 3d5.

In this state, if we see the electron configuration of Chromium, then it possesses incomplete d-orbitals.

electron configuration of Chromium

Because, there are only five electrons in the d-orbitals. 

In order to have the complete d-orbitals, there must be 10 electrons in it.

But in the ground state electronic configuration of chromium, you can see that it has only 5 electrons in d-orbitals.

Thus, Chromium has incomplete d-orbitals.

And hence, as Chromium has incomplete d-orbitals, it is considered as a transition metal.

7 Interesting facts about Chromium

Interesting facts about chromium element are mentioned below.

  1. The name of chromium element is derived from the Greek word “chroma’ (meaning color).
  2. Chromium is found in the earth’s crust and it is the 21st most abundant element in the earth’s crust.
  3. The concentration of chromium in earth’s crust is around 100 ppm.
  4. The majority amount of chromium that is obtained is from the mineral chromite.
  5. South Africa is the leading producer of chromium in the world.
  6. The majority of chromium produced in the industries is used in making strong alloys.
  7. Chromium element is the 3rd hardest element found on the entire periodic table. (Carbon is the first and boron is the second).

Properties of Chromium

The physical and chemical properties of chromium element are mentioned below.

Physical properties of Chromium

Physical properties of chromium are mentioned below.

  • Chromium is a strong metal having a silvery metallic lustre.
  • Melting point of chromium is 1907 °C and its boiling point is 2671 °C.
  • The atomic mass of chromium is 51.996 u and has a density of 7.19 g/cm3.
  • There are many allotropes of chromium, out of which 52Cr is the most abundant (around 84%).

Chemical properties of Chromium

Chemical properties of chromium are mentioned below.

  • Chromium is a fairly active metal and so it is not found in a free state. But it is always found as a compound with other elements.
  • Chromium is a transition metal as it has incomplete d-orbitals.
  • Chromium has anti corrosive properties due to which it offers a protective layer to the surface on which chromium is electroplated.

Uses of Chromium

Uses of chromium are mentioned below.

  • Chromium is the most important metal that is used in stainless steel (which is used in manufacturing utensils). Stainless steels contain around 11% chromium.
  • Chromium is used in electroplating of other metals. By electroplating, the thin layer of chromium is applied to other metals.
  • Chromium plating is used in coating of car parts, home appliances, etc to give a shiny finish.
  • The heat resistance bricks used in furnaces contain chromium in it, due to which the bricks retain strength at higher temperature.
  • Chromium is used in preparing pigments. Also the red color of ruby is due to the presence of chromium in it.
  • Chromium salts are also used in leather tanning.

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References:
Chemical data: Wikipedia, Chemspider
Chromium element: Image by Alchemist-hp (FAL or GFDL 1.2), via Wikimedia Commons
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin: Image credits- Wikimedia commons

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